HIDDEN MEANING

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When making Holbein's Globe we discovered several interesting aspects surrounding "The Ambassador's" painting:etry, globe, terrestrial, celestial globe, map , antique map, world map, globes, replica globe, facsimile globe, lute, globe of wold, world globe, the globe, globe, Hans Holbein, Ambassadors, medival globe. globe of the world, buy a globe, fantastic globe, 1533, agrippa, cornelius agrippa, 666, magic square, geometry, globe, terrestrial, celestial globe, map , antique map, world map, globes, replica globe, facsimile globe,

 

In 1997 I discovered several aspects of Holbein's 'Ambassadors', which had been overlooked by art historians, as follows. The polyhedral sundial appeared to be recording time for four religious centers depicted on the terrestrial globe. The composition of the painting, I believe, was influenced by the works of Hennrich Cornelius Agrippa. Lastly, the geometry appeared to also offer a major insight towards solving the 'hidden meaning' of Holbein's great work, in that key objects throughout the painting had been painted by Holbein to align precisely with others. These alignments in turn formed carefully planned lines, circles and geometric shapes. This strongly suggests that the use of geometry in art was being radically upgraded from its usual role of visual composition as previously used in other Renaissance paintings. Moreover, a clever twist had been planned, as some of the major points were to be found outside the paintings perimeter. For example, key lines appeared to go to/from the incomplete image of Christ on the crucifix. When I plotted these lines I was at first disappointed that they did not meet at a specific point on the figure of Christ, I had expected them to meet at the head or heart or even the spear wound in his right side, but they did not. This contradicted how lines met precisely at specific points elsewhere in the painting. Then I realised that the lines did in fact meet, and they met somewhere with more significance than Christ's head or chest - his healing right hand or possibly the nail that impales it on the missing section of the cross.

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Lines from Christ by Albrecht Durer

 

While I believed I had truly discovered something of academic interest, I didn't understand the reasoning as to why such an elaborate puzzle had been undertaken. I felt that unless I could conclusively find enough evidence to support my discovery, my findings would not be given any credence. It was for this reason that in 1997 I published a small booklet 'Holbein's Globe', where the important geometry surrounding "The Ambassadors" is revealed for the first time. The booklet, hurriedly written and erroneously speculative, was produced to give the reader the opportunity of undertaking a quest in order to find what was hidden for themselves. Time has moved on and after much studying, I believe I can now at last put pen to paper and contribute a sound thesis as to the 'hidden meaning' surrounding Holbein's 'Ambassadors'. However, before I list my discoveries in a book titled 'Axiom', I still hope that individuals or groups will attempt to unravel the geometry surrounding this great painting. This is important as, should others independently find what is hidden, then a theory will surely be confirmed and even added to.

Troubled times surrounded Jean de Dinteville, the reformation was turning Europe into a blood bath. History records that his family position in court, and his brother Francoise's bishopric in Auxerre, were eyed with envy by others who would plot and scheme in order to obtain what they thought could be theirs. It is for this reason that I believe Jean De Dinteville deliberately hid his passion - knowledge of the 'Secret Sciences'- as had this been publicly displayed it would have certainly been used against him, costing him his position in court or even his life. However, while he needed to keep this side to his life from public scrutiny, it would appear that he left us a testament to his thoughts through his paintings; "The Ambassadors", I believe, clearly shows not only this but also shows the influence of Henrich Cornelius Agrippa and his book 'Occult Philosophia'. This book was available in manuscript form from 1510 onwards and known to have been copiously copied; Agrippa himself complains of this:

'I set upon writing these books, but hoping that I should set them forth with corrections and enlargements, and for that cause I gave them to Tritemitus a Neapolitanian abbot, a man very industrious after secret things, but it happened afterwards, that the work being intercepted, before I finished it, was carried about imperfect, and impolished, and did fly abroad in Italy, France, in Germany through many men's hands, and some men, whether more impatiently or imprudently, I know not, would put thus imperfect to the press....'

Preface, Occult Philosophy. 1533.

If I am correct, then I believe that Holbein's "Ambassadors" has been painted to not only secretly hide Jean de Dinteville's passion for the 'secret sciences', but it is possible that it also represents a specific talisman, it is also possible that the painting itself was painted with the intention of acting the said talisman.

James D. Bissell-Thomas

 

THE LUTE

 

Historians often focus on the broken lute string in "The Ambassadors", stating that it is a classic symbol of discord. There is however a more sound explanation as to the possible reasoning for its deliberate inclusion by Holbein. In 1463, Marsilio Ficino translated into Latin the first fourteen chapters of the Corpus Hermeticum. These ancient texts, first printed in 1471, would soon set Europe ablaze with avid interest in the legendary Hermes Trismegistus. Because some of Hermes's discourses were akin to Biblical thought (particularly Hermes view of creation titled 'Poimandres', which was thought to be similar to Genesis) they were readily accepted by a new and eager audience. Other chapters which were pagan and Platonic in nature, would infiltrate old ideas anew: Here rebirth, reincarnation, astrology, talismans, demons and angels abounded, power was here to be found and Hermes was clearly showing how to find it. Amongst these chapters there is a passage where Hermes talks of a broken lute string hampering a musician's work:

"When musicians undertake to make harmonious melody, then if in the performance their good intent is thwarted by the discordance of their instruments," (in other words the instrument develops a fault during the recital) "one does not impute the blame on the musicians' inspiration, but ascribes the fault to the unsoundness of the instrument; it is this we say, that has made the music fall short of perfect beauty, obstructing the musician in his rendering of the melody, and depriving the audience of the joy of hearing the clear sweet strain. And even so, let no man who is present at this festival find fault with my art by reason of my personal defects; but be it known that the spirit which God breathes into men of my sort is unfailing. For god is by nature a musician, and not only works harmony in the universe at large, but also transmits to individuals the rhythm of his own music, - God, I say, can never fail; there is no variation in his skill, and his bounties are the same for ever. And even if the matter which the craftsman has to use does not yield such obedience to his hand as would bring his work to perfection, ....If then ........., but the musician has done his part as far as it is in his power, we must only lay the blame on, but we must charge the fault on to the shortcoming of the lyre string, for that it has lowered the pitch of the note, and so has marred the beauty of true music."

"But I see that it sometimes comes to pass that, when an artist has made ready to deal with a noble theme, he gets his lyre put in tune by mysterious means, in such ways as to bring its deficiency to a glorious issue, to the amazement of his hearers. It is told of a certain lute-player, one that enjoyed the favour of the god who presides over music, that when he was playing the lute for a prize, and was hindered by his competition by the breaking of a string,....... For by God's providence, a cicala* settled on his lute, and so the lute-players grief was stayed, and he won the honor of the victory. And even so I feel it is with me, most honored Sirs. Just now I confess my weakness; but by God's power methinks the defect in the melody has been made good, I am like to make right pleasant music."

HERMES TRISMEGISTUS: CORPUS HERMETICA XVIII

 

If it is possible that the 'Ambassadors' has been deliberately painted in order to display Jean de Dinteville's possible interest in the 'Secret Sciences', then it might be reasonable to presume that the image of the Lute with it's broken string could be there to make the statement that it is you who are invited to play for a prize. The prize is unravelling what they have hidden for you to find, you are hindered by their silence however, perhaps Dinteville is implying that, with God's providence, it is possible to bring this deficiency to a glorious issue.

* a 'cicala' or cicada, is a homopterous insect (grasshopper/cricket) known for its loud chirping sound.

 

 

The Power of Numbers

Agrippa reappears in the 19th century in Heinrich Hoffmanns "Struwwelpeter"

 

"The order of a unique figure and the harmony of a unique number give rise to all things"

Giordano Bruno.

 

"The Ambassadors" has many numbers depicted on the scientific instruments; however there are also two additional numbers that have been specifically added to this fine painting. Dinteville's age of 29 is recorded on his dagger's sheath. A second number is to be found recorded on the book under De Selve's right arm - to date historians claim that the number on the book is 25 as this corresponds with De Selve's known birth dates of either 1508 or 1509 which would make him either 24 or 25 in 1533. I believe that this is not correct and that the number that is being recorded on the book is actually 23. The confusion arises because the top half of the second number is hidden by shadow. However if one studies how Holbein has painted the date 1533 (bottom left hand corner), here one can clearly see that the bottom halves of his 5's and 3's are distinctly different; consequently the books second digit is clearly intended to be a 3 as opposed to a 5. There is a plausible reason as to why these numbers have been specifically included in "The Ambassadors". 'Magic Squares' were undergoing a revival in the Renaissance; their origins are traceable to China 2000 BC. Cornelius Agrippa asserts that magic squares, when made correctly, can invoke great power. He also shows how, by selecting certain numbers power is also invoked. Not surprisingly, if any magic square is to be depicted in "The Ambassadors" then the one which shines forth is the square for the Sun.

 

AGRIPPA'S MAGIC SQUARE FOR THE SUN

 

This is a square of 36 numbers (1-36), arranged six by six, so that each vertical line and horizontal line add up to 111, then the total of all the vertical lines or all the horizontal is consequently 666. The positioning of 29 and 23 in Agrippa's square are in a similar position to their the dagger (29) and the book (23) in the painting. If this is the case then what could be 23 be referring to? Could it be possible that it is referring to Agrippa's 'Occult Philosophy' which was in circulation, in manuscript form from 1510 onwards, 1510 plus 23 years makes 1533. If this is correct then the referral to age on the book is referring to the book itself!

If this is the reason for the insertion of these specific numbers, then by looking at Agrippa's square and studying his work one can see further numbers which appear to have some possible connection with positioning of items in the 'Ambassadors': At the bottom left hand corner of Agrippa's square is the number 36. Holbein not only signs the painting in the left corner of the painting but also depicts the date 1533, which (if Holbein was born in 1497) would make him in 1533 to be 36 years of age. (Holbein was thought to have been born either in 1497 or 1498. If the above reasoning is correct then this would confirm that Holbein was born in 1497 and not 1498).

To the right of number 23 in Agrippa's square we find the number 24 which could be referring to De Selve's age ( De Selve is thought to have been born in either 1508 or 1509); if he was born in 1509 he would have been 24 in 1533.

By studying Agrippa's 'Occult Philosophy', other numbers of the square reveal reasoning to the positioning of images in the painting.

Number 6 (top left hand corner of the magic square) is where the crucifix is to be found in "The Ambassadors". Agrippa clearly attributes number 6 to the suffering endured by Christ when crucified. Agrippa also attributes number 6 with the cross itself. It is interesting to note that Kabbalists also associate the word 'nail' with number 6.

Number 32 (to the right of number 6 in the Sun's Magic Square) is attributed by Agrippa to wisdom, presumably because the Kabbalah links the number 32 with wisdom - where the brain in the hollow of the skull, has an outlet towards microprosopus and on that account the brain extended, and goeth forth by thirty and two path (via the sockets for the teeth)'. There is a skull brooch depicted on Dinteville's hat.

Number 3 (to the right of number 32 in Agrippa's square) Agrippa attributes number three to the three augmentations which are the dimensions of space: length; breadth and height, Agrippa comments that with these three there is no progression of dimension, there can be no better symbol of this than the curtain.

Number 8, which in Agrippa's square is to be found above number 23, can possibly also be found above the number 23 in 'The Ambassadors'- as the torquetum's plumb line does not appear to be falling at 0 degrees because the table upon which it stands is not level. The plumb line here appears to be aligning with 8 degrees (it should be noted that the plumb line is painted on the join of two oak panels, much paint has been lost and it might be hard to conclusively prove that this area is as Holbein once painted it).

Number 35, which in Agrippa's square is to be found above number 8, can also be possibly found above the 8th degree in the 'Ambassadors' as the Torquetum appears to be set on the 35 degree.

Number 27 can possibly be found with the celestial globe, not only is the pointer at 2.7 on the dias, but Pythagoreans associated number 27 with the universe (which a celestial globe represents). The reasoning behind this is because a tetractys formed from the multiplication of odd and even numbers united in unity, produced a sum of 27 (1+2+3+4+8+9=27), when combined with the tetractys of addition (1+2+3+4=10), symbolised the musical, geometric and arithmetic ratios (all to be found below on the first shelve) upon which the universe is made.

It is interesting that number 10 is possibly to be found vertically below number 27 as the arithmetic book is opened on a page which has been copied from an existing arithmetic book with faultless precision, Agrippa states that 10 is every number and beyond 10 every number is replication, there is perhaps no better symbol for this than the arithmetic book, however it is possible that Holbein has deliberately omitted two cancellation strokes on the numbers 1 and 9 which when combined = 10).

Other numbers are also possibly in evidence:

Number 11 is in a similar position to the two slashes in Dinteville's silk shirt.

Number 22 is possibly found with the terrestrial globe, as Agrippa reminds us that the Hebrew alphabet is made of 22 letters and also that the are 22 books in the Old testament, Jerusalem has been highlighted by being inscribed in circular text. However there is also one other possibility of associating the globe with the number 22, the diameter of the globe is just over 7 inches in diameter, which means that the circumfrence is 22 inches (PIE x diameter = circumference).

It should perhaps be noted that historians in the past have commented that because some of the scientific items are incorrectly set or inverted, then the reason for their being included in the 'Ambassadors' is solely for creating the air of 'gravitas', if the reasoning for the positioning of items within the 'Ambassadors' has been purposely plotted in order to align items so that they have an affinity with Agrippa's square for the Sun, or the geometry, then a lot of hither to unanswered aspects surrounding the 'Ambassadors' will now have a firm reasoning behind them. The terrestrial globe is perhaps is the best example of this; it has been painted so that its axis of symmetry aligns with other key objects, but it has also been inverted so that Jerusalem and Rome align with other points positioned in the painting. To compensate inverting the globe Holbein re-inverts the text for Europe in order that you the viewer can still read those place names with ease.

The above reasoning may seem in our contemporary setting a little abstract and vague; however it represents the essence of Agrippa's thoughts and therefore the thoughts of anyone who follows in the Hermetic Tradition. It should also be noted that a 'magic square' is thought to hold power when made using all the numbers, but, and perhaps more importantly, when specific numbers are linked and then encoded with their corresponding Hebrew letters, words, meanings and enchantments can be found.

Historians, particularly Mary Hervey, have previously pointed out that there is a possible occult connection surrounding Holbein's 'Ambassadors'. Hervey also comments that a building, built by the Dinteville's close to their Chateau, was errected with a deliberate 'H' shaped entrance; she concludes that this the reasoning for this is because of the then vogue for Hermetisism. She also mentions Agrippa and states that Jean de Dinteville would certainly be aware of him, as Dinteville's brother, Francois, was Almoner to the Princess Louise of Savoy while Agrippa was appointed her physician, but this is as far as she goes. Her own knowledge in these matters is limited, but despite this, and to her credit Hervey leaves this topic open to her readers suggesting that they must decide 'on the possible presence or absence of intentional allusion to occult science'.

 

REVELATIONS

Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it; for the time is near. Revelations 1:3

If there is any passage in the Bible which would have significant meaning in the present day, then the Revelations of St John would be the one. The lyrical text comes from the combination of mythical and supposed factual predictions which are both compelling and ambiguous. Anyone arrogant enough might consider that the time of St Johns Revelations was 'now' and that they, with their pious beliefs, would be one of the chosen few worthy of being selected by the Lamb for the first or second resurrection. In 1500 events in Europe appeared to confirm the possibility that the first resurrection was unfolding as several key issues were slowly but surely manifesting themselves in a way which could have been interpreteted as having been prophesised by St John's Revelations. Martin Luther, who accused the Pope of being the Antichrist, was being depicted as the seven headed beast and it was said that all who followed him would be cast alive into the lake of fire and burning brimstone. This in turn was being rebuffed by implying that the church itself was the beast, as its centre of powerhad moved to Rome and was now situated on seven hills. (Would anyone make 'mountains out of mole hills' as it is common knowledge that moles eat nothing but a Diet of Worms).

And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and his angels fought..... So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him . Revelation 12.7

I saw a beast rising up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his horns ten crowns.... Revelation 13.0

It might be of interest to note that Henry VIII might possibly be the best candidate for this description. He and his 6 wives make 7 heads. Henry with his 6 wives and 3 legitimate children wore 10 crowns. Horns being the symbol of a kingdom (Daniel 9.20) represent the 10 kingdoms perceived by each person wearing a crown. When Henry VIII cut his links with Rome and declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England; he replaced the Pope and became head of both the spiritual realm as well as the material, his selfish desires threw weight into the reformation making him a good candidate for the seven headed beast.

Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: his number is 666. Revelation 13.18

Europe was fast becoming a religious funeral pyre; by 1525 the Duke of Lorraine had burnt 16,000 Lutherans. Hungary, Poland and Bohemia had broken from Rome. In France booksellers were forbidden to publish or supply translated religious works and bishops were instructed to preach against the rising wave of heresy and to firmly prosecute anyone suspected of supporting it. Marguerite, Francis I sister, was showing Lutheran sympathies, however Francis would tow the line with Rome as he badly needed the Pope's help in securing the release of his 2 sons who were being held as ransom by Charles V of Spain. In 1528 and 1530 radical Anabaptists in the Low Countries had predicted that the Lord would return. Even Martin Luther believed that in 1530 the Second Advent would take place, nothing however appeared to happen, so once again all eyes looked once again to the future. 1533 was the next date that was deemed significant, as it was thought that, as Christ was crucified at the age of 33, then the year 1533 was exactly 1500 years since Christ's ascension. This date was of significance to anyone who felt that they were a participant in St Johns prophecy. Already throughout Germany and the Netherlands a radical reformer called Melchior Hoffman was rapidly gaining followers, he was proclaiming Christ's eminent return in 1533 and he believed that the city of Strasbourg would become the next Jerusalem. It is for this reason that I believe Jean de Dinteville is painted wearing the medallion of St Michael, and commissioned the painting to represent the magic square of the Sun in order to partake in that which has been promised by fervent religious leaders of the day.

 

James Bissell-Thomas

 

Text copyright ©1999 Greaves & Thomas. London.

 

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